• Muhamad Stiadi Universitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka, Indonesia
  • Luana Sasabone UKI Paulus, Makasar, Indonesia
  • Deisye Supit Universitas Klabat, Indonesia
  • Cut Ita Erliana Department of Industrial Engineering, Universitas Malikussaleh, Aceh, Indonesia
  • Dahlan Abdullah Department of Informatics, Universitas Malikussaleh, Aceh, Indonesia


Neuromarketing, Ethical Dilemmas, Consumer Autonomy, Persuasion Techniques, Emerging Technologies, Neuroethics, Regulatory Frameworks.


Neuromarketing is a rapidly growing field that uses neuroscience to understand consumer behavior and improve marketing effectiveness. This article explores the complex ethical implications of neuromarketing practices, especially regarding persuasive influence on consumer autonomy and the use of emerging technologies. First, we investigate advances in neurotechnology, such as fMRI, EEG, and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), that enable a deeper understanding of consumer preferences. The challenge is enforcing this technology's ethical use and protecting individual privacy. Second, we discuss "neuro hacking," exploiting neurological vulnerabilities to influence consumer decisions. This raises ethical questions about mental safety and individual autonomy. Third, algorithms and artificial intelligence in Neuromarketing create highly personalized marketing experiences. This raises questions about how to protect privacy, obtain consent, and maintain individual agency. Fourth, we explore cultural issues in Neuromarketing, exploring how cultural values must be respected in marketing practices. Fifth, we discuss security and data protection issues in using neuromarketing technology. Sixth, we investigate the role of government and regulatory agencies in regulating neuromarketing practices and protecting consumer rights. Finally, we highlight the importance of education about neuroethics in educating marketers, researchers, and consumers about the ethical aspects of Neuromarketing. This article encourages critical reflection on the ethical dilemmas businesses, researchers, and policymakers face in the rapidly evolving world of Neuromarketing.


Akbarialiabad, H., Bastani, B., Taghrir, M. H., Paydar, S., Ghahramani, N., & Kumar, M. (2021). Threats to global mental health from unregulated digital Phenotyping and Neuromarketing: recommendations for COVID-19 era and beyond. Frontiers in Psychiatry, p. 12, 713987.

Alharbi, F. S. (2020). Dealing with Data Breaches Amidst Changes In Technology. International Journal of Computer Science and Security (IJCSS), 14(3), 108-115.

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., & Baharun, R. (2021). Neuromarketing: The popularity of the brain-imaging and physiological tools. Neuroscience Research Notes, 3(5), 13-22.

Apuke, O. D. (2017). Quantitative research methods: A synopsis approach. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 33(5471), 1–8.

Baños-González, M., Baraybar-Fernández, A., & Rajas-Fernández, M. (2020). Applying neuromarketing techniques in the Spanish advertising industry: Weaknesses and opportunities for development. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2175.

Barratt, M. J., & Maddox, A. (2016). Active engagement with stigmatized communities through digital ethnography. Qualitative research, 16(6), 701–719.

Bhardwaj, S., Rana, G. A., Behl, A., & de Caceres, S. J. G. (2023). Exploring the boundaries of Neuromarketing through systematic investigation. Journal of Business Research, 154, 113371.

Canham, M., & Sawyer, B. D. (2019). Neurosecurity. American Intelligence Journal, 36(2), 40–47.

Cuthbertson, L. M., Robb, Y. A., & Blair, S. (2020). Theory and application of research principles and philosophical underpinning for a study utilizing interpretative phenomenological analysis. Radiography, 26(2), e94-e102.

Davis, C., Coningham, R., Acharya, K. P., Kunwar, R. B., Forlin, P., Weise, K., ... & Schmidt, A. (2020). Identifying archaeological evidence of past earthquakes in a contemporary disaster scenario: case studies of damage, resilience and risk reduction from the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake and past seismic events within the Kathmandu Valley UNESCO World Heritage Property (Nepal). Journal of Seismology, 24, 729-751.

Dutta, T., & Mandal, M. K. (2018). Neuromarketing in India: understanding the Indian consumer. Routledge.

Fayaz, S., & Rub Nawaz, R. (2023). Neuromarketing: A bibliometric perspective of the field. Business Review, 18(1), 132-151.

Giordano, J. (2017). Toward an operational neuroethical risk analysis and mitigation paradigm for emerging neuroscience and technology (neuroS/T). Experimental neurology, pp. 287, 492–495.

Halkiopoulos, C., Antonopoulou, H., Gkintoni, E., & Aroutzidis, A. (2022, April). Neuromarketing as an indicator of cognitive consumer behavior in the decision-making process of tourism destination—An overview. In Transcending Borders in Tourism Through Innovation and Cultural Heritage: 8th International Conference, IACuDiT, Hydra, Greece, 2021 (pp. 679–697). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Hay, L., Duffy, A. H. B., Gilbert, S. J., & Grealy, M. A. (2022). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in design studies: Methodological considerations, challenges, and recommendations. Design Studies, p. 78, 101078.

Karakash, T. (2021). The double-edged razor of machine learning algorithms in marketing: benefits vs. ethical concerns (Bachelor's thesis, University of Twente).

Kawaf, F., Montgomery, A., & Thuemmler, M. (2023). Unpacking the privacy–personalization paradox in GDPR-2018 regulated environments: consumer vulnerability and the curse of personalization. Information Technology & People.

Lim, W. M. (2018). Demystifying Neuromarketing. Journal of Business Research, pp. 91, 205–220.

Mileti, A., Guido, G., & Prete, M. I. (2016). Nanomarketing: A new frontier for Neuromarketing. Psychology & Marketing, 33(8), 664-674.

N’Goala, G. (2015). Opportunism, transparency, manipulation, deception, and exploitation of customers' vulnerabilities in CRM. The dark side of CRM: Customers, relationships and management, p. 122.

Palmatier, R. W., Houston, M. B., & Hulland, J. (2018). Review articles: purpose, process, and structure. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 46, 1-5.

Penrod, J. M. (2023). A history of theories of decision-making and technologies for observation in the service of marketing. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, 15(1), 52-75.

Ravitch, S. M., & Carl, N. M. (2019). Qualitative research: Bridging the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological. Sage Publications.

Rawnaque, F. S., Rahman, K. M., Anwar, S. F., Vaidyanathan, R., Chau, T., Sarker, F., & Mamun, K. A. A. (2020). Technological advancements and opportunities in Neuromarketing: a systematic review. Brain Informatics, pp. 7, 1–19.

Rosenbaum, M. S., Ramirez, G. C., Campbell, J., & Klaus, P. (2021). The product is me: Hyper-personalized consumer goods as unconventional luxury. Journal of Business Research, pp. 129, 446–454.

Salmón, M., Álvarez-Díaz, R., Fustero-Torre, C., Brehey, O., Lechuga, C. G., Sanclemente, M., ... & Barbacid, M. (2023). Kras oncogene ablation prevents resistance in advanced lung adenocarcinomas. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 133(7).

Scanagatta, C. (2021). Exploring the consumer's brain: a neuromarketing approach.

Soriano, O., & Morales, I. (2016). Reflections on the Need for More Training in Neuroethics for Future Physicians: An Interdisciplinary Approach. International Journal of Medical Students, 4(2), 80-81.

Ulman, Y. I., Cakar, T., & Yildiz, G. (2015). Ethical issues in Neuromarketing: "I consume, therefore I am!”. Science and engineering ethics, 21, 1271-1284.

Ulman, Y. I., Cakar, T., & Yildiz, G. (2015). Ethical issues in Neuromarketing: "I consume, therefore I am!”. Science and engineering ethics, 21, 1271-1284.

Wang, R., Bush-Evans, R., Arden-Close, E., Bolat, E., McAlaney, J., Hodge, S., ... & Phalp, K. (2022). Transparency in persuasive technology, immersive technology, and online marketing: Facilitating users’ informed decision making and practical implications. Computers in Human Behavior, 107545.




How to Cite

Stiadi, M., Sasabone, L. ., Supit, D. ., Ita Erliana, C. ., & Abdullah, D. . (2023). ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN NEUROMARKETING: NAVIGATING PERSUASION, CONSUMER AUTONOMY, AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES. International Journal Of Humanities, Social Sciences And Business (INJOSS), 3(1), 120–137. Retrieved from